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Megillah, Daf Daled, Part 4

 

Introduction

Today’s section continues to deal with the Mishnah.

 

כיצד חל להיות בשני בשבת כפרים ועיירות גדולות קורין בו ביום וכו’,

מאי שנא רישא דנקט סידורא דירחא, ומאי שנא סיפא דנקט סידורא דיומי?

איידי דמיתהפכי ליה נקט סידורא דיומי.

 

How [does this work out]? If it falls on Monday, villages and larger towns read on that same day etc.

Why is it that in the first clause of the Mishnah the dates of the month are mentioned and in the second the days of the week?

Since the dates of the month would have to go backwards, the Mishnah prefers to mention the days.

 

In the beginning of the Mishnah it referred to the days by the date of the month 11th, 12th, 13th, 14th or 15th. Here later in the Mishnah it refers to them by day of the week, Monday, etc. Why, the Talmud asks, is there this change?

The reason is that the numbers would be harder to follow and would go backwards if Purim falls on Tuesday, the villagers read on the thirteenth, if it falls on Wednesday, they read on the twelfth. If it falls on Friday, they read on the thirteenth. If it falls on Shabbat, they read on the thirteenth. If it falls on Sunday, they read on the 11th. The Mishnah was taught such that it would be easier to remember and that is in ascending not descending order.

 

חל להיות בערב שבת וכו’ מתניתין מני? – אי רבי, אי רבי יוסי.

מאי רבי – דתניא: חל להיות בערב שבת – כפרים ועיירות גדולות מקדימין ליום הכניסה, ומוקפין חומה קורין בו ביום. רבי אומר: אומר אני, לא ידחו עיירות ממקומן, אלא אלו ואלו קורין בו ביום.

 

If it falls on Friday etc.

Whom does our Mishnah follow?

[You may say], either Rabbi or R. Yose.

What [source refers to] Rabbi? As it has been taught: If it falls on Friday, villages and large towns push the reading forward to the day of gathering, and walled cities read on the day itself. Rabbi said: I say that towns should not have to shift their date, but both one and the other read on the day itself.

 

The Mishnah says that if Purim falls on Friday, the villages read on Thursday and the towns and walled cities read on Friday. The Talmud notes that this follows Rabbi. According to the first opinion in this baraita, if Purim falls on Friday the towns and villagers read on Thursday and walled cities read on Friday (the 14th). Rabbi says that the towns should read on the proper day, on Friday, as do the people in the walled city (because they can’t read on Shabbat). This accords with the Mishnah.

 

מאי טעמא דתנא קמא? – דכתיב בכל שנה ושנה, מה כל שנה ושנה עיירות קודמות למוקפין – אף כאן עיירות קודמות למוקפין.

 

What is the reason of the first opinion?

Because it is written, "Every year": just as every year towns read before walled cities, so in this case towns should read before walled cities.

 

The first opinion holds that towns move up to reading on the 13th so that the general procedure will be followed. Just as the towns usually read a day before the walled cities, so too this year they will read a day before the walled cities. This way we can preserve the implications of the verse "in every year." "In every year" the towns read before the walled cities.

 

ואימא: בכל שנה ושנה, מה כל שנה ושנה אין נדחין עיירות ממקומן – אף כאן לא ידחו עיירות ממקומן! – שאני הכא דלא אפשר.

 

But why not say: "In every year" just as every year towns do not have not to shift their date, so here towns should not have to shift their date?

This is different because it is not possible.

 

We could read "in every year" to mean that just as other years the towns do not have to move their day of reading, so too when Purim falls on Friday, they should not have to move their day of reading.

The problem with this is that it is not possible. It is not possible for the towns not to move their day of reading and to still read before the walled cities. Therefore, according to the first opinion, they do shift their reading to Thursday.

ורבי, מאי טעמא? בכל שנה ושנה, מה כל שנה ושנה אין עיירות נדחין ממקומן – אף כאן לא ידחו עיירות ממקומן. ואימא: בכל שנה ושנה, מה כל שנה ושנה עיירות קודמות למוקפין – אף כאן נמי עיירות קודמות למוקפין! – שאני הכא דלא אפשר.

 

What is Rabbi’s reason?

"In every year": just as in most years the towns have not to shift their date, so here they should not have to shift their date.

But why not reason thus: "In every year": just as in most years towns read before walled cities, so here towns should read before walled cities?

This is different because it is not possible.

 

This section is basically the same as above, just with reverse reasoning.

In the end if Purim falls on Friday, something has to change. According to the first opinion, the most important thing is that the towns read on the day before the walled city. Therefore, the towns move up to Thursday and the walled cities read on Friday. According to Rabbi, it is more important that towns should not have to move their readings. Therefore, they read with the walled cities on Friday.