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Megillah, Daf Zayin, Part 5

 

Introduction

Today’s section starts with a new mishnah.

 

משנה. אין בין יום טוב לשבת אלא אוכל נפש בלבד.

 

Mishnah. There is no difference between festivals and Shabbat except in the matter of [preparing] food.

 

After teaching what the difference between Purim in Adar I and Purim in Adar II is, the Mishnah now begins a series of comparisons between two similar fields of halakhah. As far as Shabbat/festival prohibitions, the only difference is that on the latter one is allowed to prepare food.

גמרא. הא לענין מכשירי אוכל נפשזה וזה שוין. מתניתין דלא כרבי יהודה, דתניא: אין בין יום טוב לשבת אלא אוכל נפש, רבי יהודה מתיר אף מכשירי אוכל נפש.

מאי טעמא דתנא קמאאמר קרא +שמות י"ב+ הואולא מכשיריו.

ורבי יהודה (אמר) +[מסורת הש"ס: אמר קרא]+ לכםלכם לכל צורכיכם.

 

Gemara . [We can deduce] that in the matter of preliminaries for preparing food they are the same. The Mishnah does not follow R. Judah, as it has been taught: There is no difference between festivals and Shabbat except in the matter of [preparing] food. R. Judah permits [on the festivals] even the preliminaries for preparing food.

What is the reason of the First Tanna? Scripture says: [But that which every man must eat], that only [shall be prepared for you]" (Exodus 12:16): that and not its preliminaries.

R. Judah? "For you" (ibid): for you and all your requirements.

 

The Mishnah allows only the actual preparation of food, but not preparing the utensils needed to make food. Thus, for instance, one would not be allowed to sharpen a knife on Yom Tov or make any other vessel to be used in cooking.

This accords with the first opinion in the baraita. R. Judah, on the other hand, is even more lenient, allowing even making the preliminaries for preparing food.

The Talmud then lays out a midrash for each side.

 

ואידך נמי, הכתיב לכם! – לכם ולא לנכרים, לכם ולא לכלבים.

ואידך נמי, הא כתיב הוא!

כתיב הוא וכתיב לכם, כאןבמכשירין שאפשר לעשותן מערב יום טוב, כאןבמכשירין שאי אפשר לעשותן מערב יום טוב.

 

But for the other one does not it say "for you"?

[He could reply], "for you" and not for non-Jews; "for you" and not for dogs.

But for the other one, does it not say, "that only"?

[He could reply]: It is written, "that only" and it is written, "for you"; we apply the one to preliminaries which can done on the day before the festival, and the other to preliminaries which cannot be done on the day before the festival.

 

In this section each position explains what they do with the word the other position’s midrash was based on.

The first opinion uses the word "for you" to exclude cooking for non-Jews or for animals. One may prepare food on Yom Tov only for a Jew to eat.

R. Judah uses the word "that only" combined with his midrash on "for you" to teach that one can make preliminaries on Yom Tov only if he could not have prepared them the day before. For instance, if his knife was damaged on Yom Tov, he could sharpen it on Yom Tov itself. But if he just forgot to sharpen his knife before Yom Tov, he would not be allowed to sharpen it on Yom Tov.