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Megillah, Daf Heh, Part 4

 

Introduction

Today’s section deals with the celebrations and events the Mishnah said are pushed back and not forward.

 

אבל זמן עצי כהנים ותשעה באב וחגיגה והקהל מאחרין ולא מקדימין.

תשעה באב – אקדומי פורענות לא מקדמי,

חגיגה והקהל – משום דאכתי לא מטא זמן חיובייהו.

 

But with regard to the bringing the wood for the priests, the [fast of] Tisha B Av, the hagigah (the festival sacrifice), and assembling the people they postpone [until after Shabbat] and they do not move them up.

[The reason for the Fast of] Tisha B’av is that we do not hasten the approach of punishment.

[The reason for] the festival sacrifice and the assembling of the people is that the time for their obligation has not yet arrived.

 

The Talmud explains that we do not move Tisha B’av up (if it falls on Shabbat) because we do not want to hasten the approach of our commemoration of the time when Jews were punished with the destruction of the Temple.

The festival sacrifice and special assembly of people on Sukkot also are postponed if they fall on Shabbat, because one cannot fulfill these mitzvoth before their time has even arrived.

 

תנא: חגיגה וכל זמן חגיגה מאחרין.

בשלמא חגיגה, דאי מיקלע בשבתא – מאחרינן לה לבתר שבתא.

אלא זמן חגיגה מאי היא?

אמר רב אושעיא, הכי קאמר: חגיגה בשבת, ועולת ראייה אפילו ביום טוב דזמן חגיגה – מאחרין.

 

A Tanna taught: The festival sacrifice and all the period of the festival sacrifice is postponed.

We understand what is meant by the festival sacrifice, that if it falls on Shabbat we postpone it till after Shabbat.

But what is meant by the "period of the festival sacrifice"?

R. Oshaya said: This is what he meant: The festival sacrifice [is postponed if its time] occurs on Shabbat, and the "burnt-offering of appearance" is postponed even until after the festival day which is the proper time for a festival sacrifice.

 

A short baraita teaches that the festival sacrifice is postponed. This is what we learned above. However, the baraita also says that "the period of the festival sacrifice is postponed." This is less clear and there are three amoraic interpretations which follow.

R. Oshaya interprets the line to refer to the burnt offering of appearance. This is the whole burnt offering that one brings to the Temple when one comes on a festival. It is in addition to the hagigah, the festival sacrifice. The festival sacrifice itself is offered on the Festival day (Yom Tov) but not on Shabbat. In contrast, the burnt offering of appearance is offered only during Hol Hamoed. It cannot be offered on Yom Tov. The difference is that the festival sacrifice can be eaten. Since one can prepare food on Yom Tov, one can also prepare edible sacrifices. The whole burnt offering cannot be eaten. Therefore, it cannot be offered even on Yom Tov.

 

מני – בית שמאי היא, דתנן: [בית שמאי אומרים], מביאין שלמים ביום טוב ואין סומכין עליהן, אבל לא עולות, ובית הלל אומרים: מביאין שלמים ועולות, וסומכין עליהן.

 

Whom does this follow? Bet Shammai, as we have learned: Beth Shammai say: Offerings of wellbeing may be brought on the festival, but without laying on of hands; but not burnt-offerings; while Beth Hillel say: Both burnt-offerings and offerings of wellbeing may be brought, and hands may be laid on.

 

The above halakhah follows the opinion of Bet Shammai. "Offerings of wellbeing" refers to the hagigah, the festival sacrifice. According to Bet Shammai, this sacrifice may be offered on Yom Tov, but we do not perform the laying on of the hands on Yom Tov, because leaning on an animal is considered to be using the animal which is prohibited. Bet Shammai does not allow burnt offerings to be sacrificed at all, for the reasons we learned above.

But Bet Hillel allows burnt offerings and offerings of wellbeing, as well as laying on of the hands to be performed on Yom Tov (but not on Shabbat). For more information see Mishnah Betzah 2:4 and Hagigah 2:3 (both available through Mishnah Yomit).

 

רבא אמר: חגיגה, כל זמן חגיגה מאחרין, טפי – לא. דתנן: מי שלא חג ביום טוב הראשון של חג – חוגג והולך את כל הרגל כולו ויום טוב האחרון של חג. עבר הרגל ולא חג – אינו חייב באחריותו.

 

Rava said: [The meaning is]: The festival sacrifice may be postponed for the whole period of the festival sacrifice, but not more, as we have learned: If one did not bring a festival sacrifice on the first day of the festival, he may go on to do so throughout the festival, including the last day. If the festival passed without his having brought the festival sacrifice, he need not bring another in compensation.

 

Rava offers a different interpretation for the baraita. He connects it to Mishnah Hagigah 1:6 which teaches that if one does not bring the festival sacrifice on the first day, he may bring it for the rest of the festival. But if the festival passes and he has not yet brought it, he cannot bring it after the festival has been completed.

 

רב אשי אמר: חגיגה וכל זמן חגיגה מאחרין – ואפילו עצרת דחד יומא מאחרין. דתנן: מודים, שאם חל עצרת להיות בשבת שיום טבוח אחר השבת.

 

R. Ashi said: [It means that] the festival sacrifice may be postponed for the whole period of the festival sacrifice, and even on Shavuot which is only one day, it may be postponed [for seven days], as we have learned: [Beth Hillel] agree that if Shavuot falls on Shabbat, the day for killing [the sacrifice] is after Shabbat.

 

R. Ashi says that the baraita from above refers to Hagigah 2:4. In that mishnah we learn that if Shavuot falls on Shabbat, Bet Hillel agrees that the festival sacrifice and the burnt offering of appearance can be brought the next day, even though Shavuot is only one day. Therefore, this baraita teaches that the festival sacrifice may be postponed even on Shavuot which is only one day.